Had this issue, I believe, back in around Alpha 15 or so. The trouble was that there were missing game files.
Try going into the properties of the game in steam, go in local files and click verify file integrity. Should only take a few mins, and download any missing files. (no mods where involved in this, simply failed to download some files of an update)
Alternatively, if you find that the base game works fine, it may be that you have downloaded a glitched mod file, (not sure what it technically is called) basically, not everything of the mod could have gotten downloaded (happened to me when downloading a document, last couple of pages didn’t come in).
Finally, and this is the last point I can conjure to assist, try playing in windowed mode, as, back in Alpha 12 through 14, full screen led to the game failing to load, or else no menu appearing or else no in game UI appearing. I used a windowed mode, where I maximized the screen.
Hope one of these fixes your issue!